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Java-switch ‚Äč

Use the switch statement to select one of many code blocks to be executed.

Syntax

java
switch(expression) {
  case x:
    // code block
    break;
  case y:
    // code block
    break;
  default:
    // code block
}
switch(expression) {
  case x:
    // code block
    break;
  case y:
    // code block
    break;
  default:
    // code block
}

This is how it works:

  • The switch expression is evaluated once.
  • The value of the expression is compared with the values of each case.
  • If there is a match, the associated block of code is executed.
  • The break and default keywords are optional, and will be described later in this chapter

The example below uses the weekday number to calculate the weekday name:

Example

java
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 1:
    System.out.println("Monday");
    break;
  case 2:
    System.out.println("Tuesday");
    break;
  case 3:
    System.out.println("Wednesday");
    break;
  case 4:
    System.out.println("Thursday");
    break;
  case 5:
    System.out.println("Friday");
    break;
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Sunday");
    break;
}
// Outputs "Thursday" (day 4)
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 1:
    System.out.println("Monday");
    break;
  case 2:
    System.out.println("Tuesday");
    break;
  case 3:
    System.out.println("Wednesday");
    break;
  case 4:
    System.out.println("Thursday");
    break;
  case 5:
    System.out.println("Friday");
    break;
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Sunday");
    break;
}
// Outputs "Thursday" (day 4)

The break Keyword

When Java reaches a break keyword, it breaks out of the switch block.

This will stop the execution of more code and case testing inside the block.

When a match is found, and the job is done, it's time for a break. There is no need for more testing.

A break can save a lot of execution time because it "ignores" the execution of all the rest of the code in the switch block.

Example

java
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Today is Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Today is Sunday");
    break;
  default:
    System.out.println("Looking forward to the Weekend");
}
// Outputs "Looking forward to the Weekend"
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Today is Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Today is Sunday");
    break;
  default:
    System.out.println("Looking forward to the Weekend");
}
// Outputs "Looking forward to the Weekend"

The default Keyword

The default keyword specifies some code to run if there is no case match:

Example

java
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Today is Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Today is Sunday");
    break;
  default:
    System.out.println("Looking forward to the Weekend");
}
// Outputs "Looking forward to the Weekend"
int day = 4;
switch (day) {
  case 6:
    System.out.println("Today is Saturday");
    break;
  case 7:
    System.out.println("Today is Sunday");
    break;
  default:
    System.out.println("Looking forward to the Weekend");
}
// Outputs "Looking forward to the Weekend"